Dr. Dedy Ramdhani Harahap
Research on Energy Management Strategy for Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH) Battery and Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) on 3-wheel Hybrid Electric Car
Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) have higher energy conversion efficiencies than the internal combustion engine (ICE) which are also attractive to apply in the automotive sector, its ability to use hydrogen also become a reason why this technology is becoming popular. The use of renewable energy for transportation also promote this power source as an alternative solution to solve the energy crisis. This research investigates the Nickle Metal Hydride (NiMH) battery that used for the ENE-1GP race in Japan and also a small PEM fuel cell stack. An objective of this research is to design the strategy to manage the energy from these power sources, energy consumption, maximum speed, and the ability of the powertrain to climb the slope. This thesis begins with the review of proposed fuel cell stack and the battery based on the knowledge of available products. A small electric vehicle was modeled using Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR), a simulation program written in MATLAB/Simulink environment which developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). It provides a user-friendly interface in the vehicle configuration and analyzing the process, with a flexible and supported analysis platform for advanced vehicle modeling. From this experiment, the vehicle primary power source was using a 200W small PEM fuel cell stack combined with AA- type batteries of nickel metal hydride as a backup source of energy each battery have 1.2 V and 1.9 AH. The PEM fuel cell stack and NiMH battery performance were examined using an electronic load to meet the power requirement of the hybrid vehicle. Three modes, Starting Mode, Accelerating Mode, and Steady Mode with their configurations, will be applied for the hybrid vehicle to run. During the experiment, it shows that the batteries can initiate the drivetrain in the starting mode and the fuel cell stack will support the drivetrain at the accelerating
mode. When the vehicle at steady mode and the battery state of charge reduced, the PEMFC will support the battery and power the load simultaneously. All sorts of matching schemes were analyzed to meet the vehicle dynamic performance requirement, and to obtain the best match of the fuel cell and NiMH battery.
NiMH battery, PEMFC, Hybrid Electric Vehicle, Energy Management.